Modern Florence - Unification of Italy Florence replaced Turin as Italy's capital in 1865, hosting the country's first parliament, but was superseded by Rome six years later, after the withdrawal of the French troops made its addition to the kingdom possible. After doubling during the 19 C, Florence's population tripled in the 20 C with the growth of tourism, trade, financial services and industry. During World War II the city experienced a year-long German occupation (1943-1944). The Allied soldiers who died driving the Germans from Tuscany are buried in cemeteries outside the city (Americans about 9 kilometers (6 miles) south of the city, and British and Commonwealth soldiers a few kilometers east of the center on the north bank of the Arno)
In November 1966, the Arno flooded parts of the centre, drowning 101 people and damaging thousands art treasures and rare books. There was no warning from the authorities who knew the flood was coming, except a phone call to the jewellers on the Ponte Vecchio.